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Stained Glass Windows Antique Stained Glass Windows F.X. Zettler - 1920 - Complete set of Sorrowful Mysteries Stained Glass Set of Sanctuary Windows
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F.X. Zettler - 1920 - Complete set of Sorrowful Mysteries Stained Glass Set of Sanctuary Windows

Item Number: KRSTG-600-2
Style: Traditional
Antique or New: Antique
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KRSTG-600-1: Vintage, very large set of Sanctuary Windows that are 100% hand-painted-- No art glass here! Zettler was part of the Munich School of stained glass in Germany.

Dimensions: 18 1/2 feet in height, 6 1/2 feet in width

This window is:
The Scourging at the Pillar

The Flagellation of Christ, sometimes known as Christ at the Column or the Scourging at the Pillar, is a scene from the Passion of Christ very frequently shown in Christian art, in cycles of the Passion or the larger subject of the Life of Christ. It is the fourth station of the modern alternate Stations of the Cross, and a Sorrowful Mystery of the Rosary. The column to which Christ is normally tied, and the rope, scourge, whip or birch are elements in the Arma Christi. The Basilica di Santa Prassede in Rome, claimed to possess the original column.

The event is mentioned in three of the four canonical Gospels, and was the usual prelude to crucifixion under Roman law. In the Passion of Christ it precedes the Mocking of Christ and the Crowning with thorns.

It first appears in art in the West in the 9th century. Initially found in illuminated manuscripts and small ivories, there are surviving monumental wall-paintings from around 1000 in Italy. From the start there are most often three figures, Christ and two servants of Pontius Pilate who whip him. In early depictions Christ may be naked, or wearing a long robe, facing out or seen from behind; from the 12th century it is standard that Christ wears a loincloth and faces out towards the viewer.

Pontius Pilate is sometimes shown watching the scene, and his wife's servant may approach him with her message, and in the later Middle Ages, probably under the influence of Passion plays, the number of men beating Christ may be three or four, increasingly caricatured in the North as grotesque figures in the dress of contemporary mercenaries. Sometimes another figure, who may be Herod, is present.

From the 15th century the subject is also painted in individual works, rather than as one of a series of Passion scenes. At the same time Christ at the Column or Christ at the Stake developed as an image of Christ alone tied to a column or stake. This was most popular in Baroque sculpture, and also related to the subject, not found in the canonical Gospels, of Christ in the Dungeon. It is often difficult to distinguish between these two, and between Christ at the Column and a Flagellation.

The text in this box was generated from a Wikipedia article, which is released under the CC-BY-SA.

Read more about F.X. Zettler.

In 1847 Joseph Gabriel Mayer (1808–1883), an academic artist and sculptor, founded the "Mayer Institute of Christian Art". His vision for the new Christian Art had been to revive the ideal of the Medieval "Bauhutten" (masons' lodges) – establishments of mutual collaboration and inspiration of fine arts, architecture, sculpture, stained glass and painting. Following his vision the manufacture of sculptures, statues and altars dominated the early years.

Of course, the great success of the Royal Stained Glass Establishment and the revival of this art form did inspire Joseph Gabriel Mayer. But it was the Arts and Crafts Movement in Great Britain which fascinated Mayer. The British movement and its pursuit of true quality in craftsmanship generated glass painters with great skills. Mayer recognized the opportunity to add stained glass windows of highest quality to his range of products. Locally trained and eventually British stained glass artists and glass painters were invited to his Munich studio. Stained glass windows by Peter Hemmel von Andlau or Hans Holbein the Elder set the standards for Mayer.

In approximately 1862 F. X. Zettler, Mayer's junior associate and son in law, became entrusted with the founding of the stained glass department within Mayer's "Institute of Christian Art". In 1870 he established an independent studio, which became very successful, too. The F. X. Zettler Studio was reunited with the Mayer Studio in 1939.

In 1865 the first branch was opened in London. In 1869 it was followed by a branch in Paris. In 1882 King Ludwig II awarded the company the title of "Royal Bavarian Art Establishment" ("Hofkunstanstalt").

The next generation, Joseph and especially Franz Borgias Mayer (1848–1926), brought the company to its highest international renown and success. By the turn of the century Mayer and Zettler employed some 600 artisans and glass painters.

In 1888 the new branch in New York City was opened and brought the company full international status. Furthermore, in 1892 Pope Leo XIII awarded the title "Pontifical Institute of Christian Art". The most outstanding ecclesiastical commission of that period had been the Holy Spirit Window above the main altar of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome (approx. 1905).

Stained glass windows for more than 50 Cathedral Churches in the United States and Canada and another 50 in other parts of the world were made by Mayer and Zettler. In addition, windows for thousands of regular parish churches, mostly Roman Catholic ones, were designed and supplied. Towards the end of the 19th century Franz Mayer of Munich and F.X. Zettler with some 600 glass painters and artisans became the most successful stained glass studios in Munich and worked worldwide.

Mayer and Zettler succeeded in the creation of a stained glass style, which eventually became world-renowned. This style was called the "Munich Style" and was clearly a phenomenon. Analyzing and researching the preconditions and the characteristics of the Munich Style reveals the following key words or explanations:

Characteristics and Features of the Munich Style

  1. Reference to late gothic stained glass between 1450 and 1500; special reference to Peter Hemmel von Andlau, Hans Holbein the Elder – rather than referring to Nazarenes or Pre-Raphaelites
  2. Musivic combined with painterly stained glass
  3. Colourful stained glass; strong colours – rather than subdued colouring and clear glass in 19th Century British glass
  4. Naturalistic and painstakingly exact figurative drawing
  5. Balanced composition within the individual window opening
  6. Perfectly worked out architectural framing design for each window
  7. Excellence in design - Master painters, academic professors designed the composition and concentrated on the main figures and on most important elements of the art work; the assistants added the background figures, landscape, architecture; skilled helpers worked on less important areas. In the 2nd half of the 19th century the Munich Academy of Fine Arts was famous and historic, monumental and figurative painting played an important role; many of the professors and "masters" worked for Mayer and Zettler. Through the studio's international relations and especially contacts with stained glass artists in England, the best British painters were added to the design teams. The individual design artist of the Mayer or Zettler windows in the late 19th or early 20th century normally worked anonymously. It was the Mayer and Zettler studio which entrusted the work to the artists and which stood for the art works. The studio meant teamwork from all design and fabrication aspects. Artistic stardom was not yet borne. Few very established and well-known artists were mentioned by name, for instance Moritz von Schwind, Claudius von Schraudolph, - sometimes – Martin Feuerstein or William Francis Dixon.
  8. Selection and Repetition of best and most refined artistic Compositions - Both Joseph Gabriel and Franz Borgias Mayer were of deep faith and social understanding, with an admiration of medieval culture and yet fascination for the new industrial age. The best religious art works should be made affordable to as many church communities as possible. It was not the "originality" of the art work, which counted most, but the individual quality of design and execution! The most beautifully developed compositions of their own design teams set the standard and were often used as master-copies. Often only minor changes were made for the individual churches. It was more important that each church would receive the best possible and most beautifully executed windows, statues and altars.
  9. Excellence in fabrication - The painting and drawing quality, and the luminosity, transparency and glassiness were of upmost importance at all Mayer and Zettler stained glass windows. Some 50% or more of the glass painting was erasing, rubbing and etching: "Painting" light or "painting" transparency. Specialization of artists and artisans became key elements of the studios practicing. Alone the stained glass painters specialized in human portraits, architecture, landscape, ornament etc. The glazier artisans specialized in groups that defined the lead-line compositions, prepared the patterns, selected the colours, cut the glass etc. All other steps of the work were also performed by specialists and experts in their field.
  10. Both Mayer and Zettler defined the art work, organized the execution and marketed the "product", i.e. the "Munich Style" stained glass window.
  11. The studios also allowed space for individual artistic expressions and envelopments.

The text in this box was generated from a Wikipedia article, which is released under the CC-BY-SA.

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